papers, blogs and other information



Safety history:

Swuste et al. 2010 paper that sheds light on the early safety movement:







Gullijk, Swuste


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Preventing Industrial Accidents. Reappraising H. W. Heinrich – More than Triangles and Dominoes

Link to the publisher's page:

Read some sections of the book online.

Read some of the feedback on the book.

Here you can find sections that had to be edited out of the final version of the book, but provide worthwhile enhancement.



Heinrich’s Local Rationality: Shouldn’t ‘New View’ Thinkers Ask Why Things Made Sense To Him? 

Here you can find a discussion of Heinrich's papers which was part of the literature research done for the thesis (and book). While they do not provide the actual papers, you can glimpse their contents and get some quotes along with some critique and reflections.



Busch, C. (2020) Myth Busting: De 88% van Heinrich. NVVK Info, 29 (1): 12-14.

An article that I wrote for the quarterly magazine of NVVK (Dutch society of safety science). 



Heinrich's Local Rationality - PDSC session 26 June 2020

Near misses - orgins, triangles and challenges. (18 December 2020)

The slides accompanying the podcast can be found here: 

Young NVVK -  Safety Forward - 20-01-2021

I give an introduction to Heinrich's work in Dutch from ca. 5 to 35 min. Will edit this when I find the time.

Safety Myth Busting: The 80 Percent Conclusion

Dealing critically with the 88:10:2 ratio:

Meet The Author

19 February 2021

Other stuff:

old reviews/summaries 


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placeholder to discuss themes and evolution of stuff



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This page collects material that most likely influenced Heinrich in his thinking about safety.


The 1931 Bibliography

Beyer, D.S. (1916) Industrial Accident Prevention. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Find the book online (and download if you fancy):

Here is a very positive review from when it came out:

My own summary/discussion of the source: 

Beyer also wrote an interesting paper on the early years of safety:

Beyer, D.S. (1917) Accident Prevention. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 70, Modern Insurance Problems: 238-243.

Cowee, G.A. (1916) Practical Safety Methods and Devices. Manufacturing and Engineering. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company.

Read and download the book online:

Swuste et al. discuss Cowee and his contemporaries in their informative 2010 paper that sheds light on the early safety movement:

My own summary/discussion of the source: 

Ashe, S.W. (1917) Organization in Accident Prevention. New York: McGraw-Hill.

A digital version is available for online reading, and download:

My own summary/discussion of the source:

Lange, F.G. (1926) Handbook of Safety and Accident Prevention. New York: The Engineering Magazine Company.

At this moment no digital version appears to be available online. But you can find a review online:

Hayhurst, E.R. (1926) Handbook of Safety and Accident Prevention. American Journal of Public Health and the Nations Health, 16(7): 730–731.

My own summary/discussion of the source:

DeBlois, L.A. (1926) Industrial Safety Organization for Executive and Engineer. New York: McGraw-Hill.

You can read the book online - and download it:

My own summary/discussion of the source:

Williams, S.J. (1927) The Manual of Industrial Safety. Chicago & New York: A.W. Shaw Company.

At this moment no digital version appears to be available online, and getting an original copy is next to impossible...

My own summary/discussion of the source:


Fisher, E.B. (1922) Mental Causes of Accidents. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Read the book online or download it:

Review by Sidney J. Williams:, or

There is another (long) review by G.F. Mischelbacher here (on page 57):

My own summary/discussion of the source:

Chase, S. (1929) Men And Machines. New York: The MacMillan Company.

Find the book online:

My own summary/discussion of the source:

Dow, M.A. (1928) Stay Alive! In Which Jim the Truckman gently kicks the Drivin’ Fools and Walkin’ Yaps. New York: Marcus Dow Publishers.

Not available online, and hard to find.

Slocombe, C.S. & Bingham, W.V. (1927) Men Who Have Accidents: Individual Differences Among Motormen and Bus Operators. Personnel Journal, 6: 251–257.

I managed to find this paper here: 

Safety Institute of America (1920) Safety Fundamentals. New York: Safety Institute of America.

These can be read and downloaded here: 




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Heinrich's original work is not easy to find with his books out of print for several decades. However, some can be found online and hopefully more will be accessible in the future. Below you will find links to some of the original texts by Heinrich that are to be found on the web.

The numbering of sources corresponds to the referencing in my book.

Heinrich, H.W. (1927b) Incidental Cost of Accidents to the Employer. Monthly Labor Review, 25 (2): 46-50. 

Heinrich, H.W. (1929c) Relation Of Accident Statistics To Industrial Accident Prevention. Proceedings of the Casualty Actuarial Society 1929-1930: 170-174. 

Heinrich, H.W. (1930a) The Foreman's Responsibility for Accidents. Monthly Labor Review, 30 (2): 83-88. 

Heinrich, H.W. (1930c) Cost of Industrial Accidents to the State, the Employer, and the Man. Monthly Labor Review, 31 (5): 72-87. 

Heinrich, H.W. (1941) Industrial Accident Prevention (second edition). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Heinrich, H.W. (1944) Basics of Supervision. New York: Alfred M. Best Company. 

Heinrich, H.W. (1949) Formula for Supervision: Outlining the Application of Supervisory Control to Secure, Safe, Efficient Work Performance. New York: National Foremen’s Institute, Inc. 

ASME (1947) Form for Use in Self-Appraisal of Industrial Plants. New York: The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.  


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